The Zionist Mega-Scams of 9/11, Bernard Madoff & Allen Stanford

March 7, 2011

 The people who are preventing the discovery of the facts in such cases are actually complicit in covering-up crimes of mass murder.  Logically, there can be no reason for dedicated Zionists to obstruct the investigation of 9-11 other than to conceal the evidence of Israeli and Zionist involvement in the crimes.
– Christopher Bollyn,
“The Planes of 9-11”, Solving 9/11

‘Do you really think that criminals are clever, good people, Thrasymachus?’

‘Yes, if their criminality is able to manifest in a perfect form and they are capable of dominating countries and nations.’
– Plato’s Republic, ca. 360 B.C.

Jose Padilla’s lawsuit against Donald Rumsfeld and Robert Gates for the gross injustice and torture he suffered in a Navy brig in South Carolina was 
thrown out by Richard Gergel, a Jewish Zionist judge appointed to the bench by President Obama.  Gergel ruled that Padilla, an American citizen from Chicago, had no right to sue for constitutional violations. 

The White House announcement of Richard Gergel’s (right) appointment to the federal bench in 2009 noted that he had served as President of the Columbia Hebrew Benevolent Society, one of the oldest Zionist/Rothschild secret societies in America.  This is just the latest example of how highly-placed agents of Zionist secret societies, devoted to foreign interests, manage and control the fraudulent “War on Terror”.  The mega-scams against the American people:  9/11, Bernard Madoff, and Allen Stanford are all completely controlled by Zionist agents in order to protect the guilty.  Understanding the true nature of these Zionist-controlled scams is the first step to solving these crimes. (Photo – Getty Images, 15 April 2010)

“I am saying that the banks and funds were complicit in one form or another and my information to Picard when he was here established this.”
– Bernard Madoff, “From jail, Madoff says others knew”, 
New York Times 15 February 2011

Irving H. Picard, the court-appointed trustee of the Madoff case, is a Zionist Jew who happens to be married to Sharon Madoff (a.k.a. Medoff) of Worcester, Massachusetts.  Is this just a coincidence or are they related? 

The false-flag terror attacks of 9/11 and the multi-billion dollar financial scams of Bernard Madoff and Allen Stanford are, like peas in a pod, three mega-scams that have been carried out by Israeli intelligence and high-level Zionist agents in the United States – against the American people.  The people behind these crimes are from the same foreign criminal network described in greater detail in “The Architecture of Terror: Mapping the Israeli Network Behind 9-11” (Chapter VII of Solving 9/11). 

Key individuals of this network are involved in all three mega-crimes, e.g. Joseph Ciechanover.  The very same Israeli/Rothschild funding entities, such as Israel Discount Bank, the Challenge Fund, and the Catalyst Fund are involved in all three crimes.  The cover-ups of all three crimes have been tightly controlled by Zionist investigators, trustees, and judges in order to protect their fellow Zionist Jews.  Understanding the Zionist control of these crimes and cover-ups helps us understand the nature of the crimocracy that controls the United States.

Joseph Ciechanover, 77, former chairman of the board of Israel Discount Bank and El Al Israel Airlines, is one of the key individuals connected to three Zionist mega-crimes in the United States:  the false-flag terror attacks of 9/11 and the financial scams of Bernard Madoff and Allen Stanford. (Photo – Moti Kimche in

The investigations of 9/11 and the huge financial scams of the past decade are strikingly similar in their appalling lack of success.  To be honest, the government investigation of the terror attacks of 9/11 is more aptly defined as a “non-investigation” because the most crucial evidence from the crime scene was confiscated and destroyed by the officials who were responsible for leading the investigation.  Likewise, the investigations of the immense financial scams of Bernard Madoff and Allen Stanford have utterly failed to identify the key players involved in the scams or to locate where the missing billions went. 


As Floyd Norris of the New York Times wrote recently about the cost of following the Madoff trail:

Financial frauds tend to follow predictable paths after they are uncovered.  At first, there is outrage and a determination to find and punish the villains.  But passions fade and investigations run into ambiguities. 

The cost of following the Madoff trail “has risen to unthinkable levels”, Norris wrote.  “Through the end of last year, the trustee appointed by the Securities Investor Protection Corp. [Irving H. Picard] had spent $228.3 million.  And that does not count the money that has gone to the victims.  Baker Hostetler, the law firm representing the trustee [where Picard is a partner], received most of the money.”

The false-flag terror attacks of 9/11 and the financial scams of Bernard Madoff and Allen Stanford share one noteworthy similarity:  While Israeli Mossadniks and high-level Zionist agents are key suspects or defendants in all three cases, the investigations are all under the control of Zionist Jews.  When we consider that these faulty investigations are Zionist-controlled endeavors, we can understand why they have failed to investigate and expose the Zionist elements of these mega-crimes.  The primary reason for these Zionist-controlled investigations is to protect the real criminals. 

Assistant Attorney General Michael Chertoff, the son of an Israeli Mossad agent, supervised the non-investigation of 9-11 and authorized the confiscation and destruction of crucial evidence, such as videos from the Pentagon and the steel of the World Trade Center.


Larry Doyle of, a well known Wall Street veteran, raises good questions in his article of 7 February 2011 entitled “Questions Left Unanswered”.

Will the American public ever truly learn what happened inside Bernard Madoff’s operations?  What about Allen Stanford?  His trial has been postponed for two years.  Do we really think Stanford will ever stand trial?  Will we ever learn the nature of this scam?  Was Stanford acting on behalf of the Department of Justice in operating his Caribbean based operation?  Was the U.S. Government, that is the Department of Justice, effectively complicit in Stanford’s scheme?  Will we ever know?

Will we ever know what happened inside the mega-scams of Madoff and Stanford?  Mr. Doyle’s question sounds very much like the key question about 9/11:  Will we ever know what really happened? 

To answer that question we need to identify who is actually preventing us from finding the truth about who is behind these huge crimes.  While such investigations are what a free press is supposed to be engaged in, we won’t hear about it on CNN or FOX News and we certainly won’t read about it in the New York Times or the Wall Street Journal.  The Zionist-controlled press is not in the business of investigating or exposing the Zionist criminal network; its real mission is to protect it. 

In an age of monstrous Zionist crimes like 9/11, the $20 billion Madoff scam, and the immense plundering of the U.S. Treasury (and others, such as the State of California and Iceland) the Zionist-controlled media is a dog that won’t hunt.  Subjects that the media should be investigating are left completely untouched.  The controlled press has no need of investigative journalists.   

As an independent investigative journalist, I have written a great deal about the numerous connections linking the criminals of the huge financial frauds that surfaced in 2008-2009 with the Zionist terror network behind the false-flag terrorism of 9/11.  Unfortunately, many of these articles were removed from the Internet when my previous website ( was confiscated by agents of U.S. military intelligence in March 2009.  While many articles were lost, some of them were saved on other websites, such as

Bernard L. Madoff (left) was national treasurer of the American Jewish Congress and Yeshiva University (YU).  Madoff was chairman of YU’s Sy Syms School of Business along with Sy Syms of Israel Discount Bank (center).  Here, Madoff and Syms attend a Hanukkah dinner at YU with Josh S. Weston, chairman of Boys Town Jerusalem foundation.

Sy Syms (center, in black), director of Israel Discount Bank of New York, was Madoff’s close friend and business partner.  Larry Silverstein was a business partner with Sy Syms in an Israeli tax-free zone project along with Larry Tisch of CBS.  Benjamin Netanyahu and Ehud Barak are both friends and business associates of Silverstein.  This is the small circle of Zionist masterminds behind 9-11 and the Madoff scam.


In “Money Laundering? Bernie Madoff & Sy Syms (IDB)”, one of my re-titled articles about Madoff’s connections to Israel, I pointed out that Sy Syms, Madoff’s friend and business partner, was a director of the Israel Discount Bank of New York, a private Israeli bank known for massive money-laundering operations.  

Madoff was chairman of the Syms business school at Yeshiva University with his partner, Sy Merns, a.k.a. Sy Syms, the long-standing director of the notorious Israel Discount Bank of New York, a bank charged for laundering tens of billions of dollars in 2005. So where did the $50 billion go?

The IDB is the Israeli bank at the center of the 9-11 funding matrix connected to the Bronfman family and Israeli military intelligence. IDB is the Israeli financial institution at the center of the Zionist crimocracy…

The Jerusalem Post reported on 2 November 2006 that the scale of money-laundering going on at the Israeli bank was much, much larger than the Brazil case reported in the New York Times.  The Post reported that U.S. regulators fined the Israel Discount Bank of New York $12 million for violating federal and state laws designed to thwart money laundering.  The Israeli bank now controlled by the Bronfmans had failed to set up an adequate program to identify and report money laundering, according to federal and state regulators.  A “substantial” part of $35.4 billion in third-party wire transfers during the year ended March 2005 showed traits common to laundering operations, the complaint said.

While Madoff has said that he acted alone in orchestrating the fraud, this is seen as very unlikely. There was probably a very sophisticated team working on wire transfers to secret bank accounts, perhaps at Israel Discount Bank’s Swiss branch, which opened in Switzerland in 2000.

The key point to be understood about the huge financial frauds carried out by Bernard Madoff and Allen Stanford is that these men were front men for a well-organized Zionist criminal network that will never be exposed by the controlled press.  A current Google news search, for example, finds some 4,000 articles about Madoff but not a single one even mentions Sy Syms. 

The method behind the Madoff and Stanford cover-ups is exactly the same as that used by the Zionist criminal network to hide the truth about 9/11.  First, control the investigation and access to the evidence.  Second, control the prosecution and court process so that there is zero chance of any discovery of fact.  Finally, use the controlled media outlets to spread the politically acceptable version of events and publish textbooks to teach these lies as history to future generations.


In a recent development, Bernard Madoff said that the banks he worked with were complicit in his scam of some $20 billion:

“I am saying that the banks and funds were complicit in one form or another and my information to Picard when he was here established this.”

As noted above, Bernard Madoff was a business partner at Yeshiva University with Sy Syms, a long-standing director of Israel Discount Bank of New York.  I have reported on Madoff’s Israeli connection since the Madoff case surfaced:

…Madoff has very close and long-standing business ties to the directors and owners of two of Israel’s largest banks, which were privatized in 2005-06 under Israeli finance ministers Benjamin Netanyahu and Ehud Olmert: Bank Leumi and Israel Discount Bank. It is a matter of record that the IDB has a history of money-laundering and illegal money transfers.

Jacob Ezra Merkin, who funneled hundreds of millions if not billions of dollars to Madoff’s fund, is co-owner of Bank Leumi. Madoff’s co-chair at the Sy Syms School of Business at Yeshiva University was Sy Syms, a long-standing director of Israel Discount Bank of New York. These two relationships strongly suggest that Madoff’s scheme was a massive theft being disguised as a Ponzi scheme in which fellow Zionist fund-raisers played key roles.

If this is the case and the Madoff fraud is actually a huge Zionist fund-raising scheme in which untold billions have been stolen, then we would expect that the role of the prosecutor would be played by a Zionist agent acting the role of a tough, but not too tough, prosecutor. It should come as no surprise that this is, in fact, the case.

The New York Times of February 15 reported:  “In e-mails, Mr. Madoff said repeatedly that he provided useful information to Irving H. Picard, the trustee trying to recover assets for the fraud victims. He met with Mr. Picard’s team over four days last summer, he said.”

Irving H. Picard is “the trustee trying to recover assets for the fraud victims.”  As I say, the first essential part of a cover-up is to control the investigation and access to the evidence. This would mean that if there is a cover-up of certain aspects of the Madoff case, Picard would have to be part of the cover-up.


Irving H. Picard is a Jew who is married to Sharon M. Picard.  It may come as a surprise to some but the M. stands for Madoff (also spelled Medoff).  This is to say that the receiver in the $20 billion Madoff scam is married to a member of the Madoff family.  While this may be just a coincidence it is certainly relevant to the controlled investigation of the $20 billion Madoff scam.

Irving Picard’s wife Sharon is the daughter of Abraham Medoff and Lillian Kunin of Worcester, Massachusetts.  U.S. Census records from 1920 show Sharon’s father, Abraham Madoff, living in Worcester with the last name spelled Madoff.  Abraham’s father, Philip, was a 38-year-old immigrant from Russia.  Worcester city directories from 1918, 1929, and 1932 all list Abraham and Philip Madoff using the same spelling as Bernard Madoff.  There are two other Abraham Madoffs found in the U.S. Census of 1920.  One of them is Bernard Madoff’s uncle Abe.  Madoff’s father Ralph was 9 years old in 1920 and lived in Scranton, Pennsylvania.  His father, David, was a 28-year-old immigrant from Russia.  Are these Madoff families related?


Allen Stanford is the 60-year-old Texan who ran an international financial operation that had more than $8 billion in assets under management when the scam surfaced in February 2009.  The Stanford scam has been described as a money-laundering operation and a Ponzi scheme.  Stanford has stated that he wants to fight the charges against him but that doesn’t look like it will happen anytime soon.  David Hittner, U.S. District Judge for the Southern District of Texas, ruled that Stanford was mentally incompetent in the first week of January 2011, three weeks before his trial was slated to begin on 24 January 2011.

The Jewish judge who ruled Stanford mentally incompetent:  David Hittner (right), originally from Schenectady, New York, with his son, attorney George J. Hittner and his wife Erica at the Hittner family seder for Passover 2010 in Houston.

Stanford was diagnosed as mentally incompetent after being grossly over-medicated for more than one year by doctors at the privately-owned Joe Corley Detention Facility in Conroe, Texas.  The Corley prison is owned by the GEO Group of Boca Raton, Florida, which is headed by the Greek immigrant-cum-private prison millionaire, George C. Zoley.  The GEO Group was formerly known as the Wackenhut Corrections Corporation until a name change in 2003.  The GEO Group, Inc. now runs former Wackenhut facilities in 14 states, as well as in South Africa and Australia.  The Wackenhut company was started by the late George R. Wackenhut, who began his career with the FBI.  Several of Wackenhut’s senior executives were former CIA operatives, and Wackenhut’s board of directors included former FBI director Clarence Kelly, former National Security Agency director Bobby R. Inman, and former deputy CIA director Frank Carlucci.

While in GEO Group’s Corley prison, Stanford was over-medicated with three times the recommended dosage of powerful mind-altering drugs.  Stanford was prescribed anti-anxiety and antidepressant medications after suffering a savage beating in an extremely over-crowded cell that lacked both light or air conditioning during the hot Texan summer with temperatures over 100 degrees (F).  Stanford had sustained head injuries in September 2009 after being attacked by at least two other inmates, who were neither identified nor charged.  The assault occurred in an eight-man cell that was being used to hold 14 men.  Before the attack, which occurred in conditions of “virtual darkness”, Stanford had made three requests to be moved to another prison.

Allen Stanford at court hearing in Houston, 25 June 2009

“When Mr. Stanford surrendered to authorities, he was a healthy 59-year-old man,” Stanford’s Houston-based lawyer, Robert Bennett, wrote in a 2010 brief on which Harvard Law Professor Alan Dershowitz consulted.  “Mr. Stanford’s pretrial incarceration has reduced him to a wreck of a man: he has suffered potentially life-impairing illnesses; he has been so savagely beaten that he has lost all feeling in the right side of his face and has lost near-field vision in his right eye,” Bennett said.  Bennett, it should be noted, is a former partner with the high-level Zionist law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom in Washington, D.C.  Bennett was charging Stanford $1,000 per hour for his lawyering.


Skadden Arps is closely tied to the state of Israel and does a great deal of business representing Israeli interests, as its webpage on Israel says:  “Founded in 1948, Skadden is one of the leading global law firms advising Israeli companies doing business and raising capital outside Israel and advising non-Israeli companies and individuals doing business in Israel.”  One of the partners at Skadden Arps is Joseph “Yossi” Vebman, an Israeli who specializes in corporate finance and financial transactions.  Vebman has represented the Challenge Fund and other Israeli entities such as Amdocs. 

One of the key defendants in the 9/11 tort litigation was the Israeli Mossadnik airport security company ICTS (International Consultants on Targeted Security), and its wholly owned subsidiary Huntleigh USA, which was responsible for passenger screening at the key airports on 9/11.  Skadden Arps partner Sheila Birnbaum played a pivotal role in the 9/11 tort litigation as the court-appointed mediator who pushed the families of victims to accept out-of-court settlements in lieu of having their cases heard in court.

JUSTICE DENIED – Skadden Arps partner Sheila Birnbaum was the court-appointed mediator who forced the 9/11 families into out-of-court settlements.  96 families chose to use the courts to find those responsible for 9/11.  Not a single case went to trial. 

Of the 96 families of 9/11 relatives that chose to litigate rather than accept the government payment, not a single case ever went to trial in the Manhattan courtroom of the Zionist orthodox Jewish judge Alvin K. Hellerstein.  

Alvin K. Hellerstein, a devoted Zionist judge with family connections to the Israeli defendant in the 9/11 litigation, has obstructed justice by blocking a trial from occurring. The 9/11 tort litigation process under Hellerstein has been an appalling travesty of justice. 

The fact that Bennett was one of Stanford’s first attorneys suggests that his $8 billion scam was very highly connected – and well protected.  As a partner with Skadden Arps, Robert S. Bennett represented Enron and was lead counsel in the KPMG tax shelter investigation.  He represented Caspar Weinberger, the U.S. Secretary of Defense, during the Iran-Contra scandal of the 1980s, Clark Clifford in the Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) scandal, Paul Wolfowitz in the World Bank Scandal, and President Bill Clinton during the Paula Jones trial.  It is worth noting that in 2008 Bennett defended Peter S. Lowy, the son of Frank Lowy, the former Israeli commando who held the lease on the World Trade Center on 9/11 with Larry Silverstein. The tax evasion complaint against Peter Lowy said that Lowy’s father, Frank Lowy, an Australian citizen, used Liechtenstein-based LGT Group to set up a series of shell companies, including a U.S. based foundation, to divert $68 million in assets in order to avoid U.S. taxes.

Is Allen Stanford the fall guy in a massive C.I.A./Israeli money laundering operation?

Allen Stanford was savagely beaten in a private prison and then intentionally over-medicated on mind-altering drugs. Does this sound like any way to treat a federal prisoner worth $8 billion?  It rather looks like the way Stalin’s K.G.B. disposed of inconvenient political prisoners in the Soviet Union. (Photo –
Daily Mail )

Stanford reportedly suffered fractures to his eye socket, cheek bones and severe bruising to his body.  He also lost all feeling in the right side of his face.  Oddly, no one was punished for the attack, although there were a dozen eyewitnesses.  Stanford spent three weeks in solitary confinement before being moved to another prison.

During a competency hearing in early January 2011 several psychiatrists deemed Stanford unfit to stand trial and in need of treatment for addiction to the drugs. Stanford’s alleged mental incompetence is the result of long-term over-medication with the anti-anxiety drug clonazepam along with the powerful anti-depressant mirtazapine, defense psychiatrist Victor Scarano testified in January 2011.  Scarano testified that for more than a year Stanford “has been taking 3 milligrams a day of the anti-anxiety drug clonazepam, and that a normal dose is up to 1 milligram a day for no longer than two weeks,” the Houston Chronicle disclosed.

The psychiatrist told the court that “he is unable to work effectively and rationally with his attorneys in his defense against the charges.”  “He is unable to focus, he’s unable to keep a train of thought,” Scarano testified.

Stanford’s attorney Ali Fazel told the court that his client had been assaulted while in federal custody [in a private facility], severely beaten and that it was prison physicians who prescribed the medications to which the accused swindler is now addicted. “It’s the government that caused the problem,” Fazel said.  Once Stanford is weaned off his medication, additional tests will determine how much damage was caused by the prison injury, and the drugs. “We just have to take it a step at a time,” Fazel said.

Chris Strickland, warden of the privately-owned prison where Allen Stanford was savagely beaten and then over-medicated by prison doctors with mind-altering drugs that erase one’s memory.

Stanford was indicted in February 2009 on 21 counts including securities fraud and money laundering. U.S. prosecutors accuse him of creating false accounting records, lying to investors and bribing a regulatory official in Antigua.

The way the Stanford case has been handled raises obvious questions:

Why has Stanford, the key player in a $8 billion fraud case, been kept in a private prison in crowded and unsafe conditions that allowed him to be beaten?  Why was such a valuable prisoner not protected while in custody of the state?

Why has Stanford been prescribed drugs that are known to cause people to lose their mind – and their memory?

Why has the Stanford case not been tried?  It seems that the beating and the drugs are part of a plot to keep the Stanford case from going to trial, but why?


The real reason Allen Stanford was beaten, over-medicated on mind-altering drugs, and why he has been been ruled mentally incompetent is because a proper investigation and trial will expose that his $8 billion scam was an Israeli money laundering operation working with three Mossad funds (Catalyst, AguaAgro, and Infinity I-China) – all connected to Ehud Barak and the criminal gang running the state of Israel.

Merav Ankori of Globes (Israel) reported in August 2007 that Stanford Financial Group had invested $10 million in the Aqua Agro Fund, an Israeli venture capital fund of Gaon Agro Industries Ltd., controlled by chairman Benjamin Gaon. The Stanford investment was for the fund’s entire eight-year lifespan, with a two-year option to extend. With Stanford’s investment, Aqua Agro Fund announced that it had secured more than $30 million in financing.  This is the same Israeli Mossad fund that Hugo Neu is invested in.  Hugo Neu is the Zionist-owned scrapyard that recycled the crucial steel evidence from the World Trade Center – before it could be examined by investigators.

If Stanford was running a Ponzi scheme, why was he investing in Mossad-linked venture capital funds that run Mossad companies and operations in the United States?  Stanford’s operation, based in Antigua and Houston, was one in which senior Mossadniks were both investors and recipients of investments from Allen Stanford. The Israeli venture capital funds which received millions of dollars from Stanford are all closely linked to the Mossad. Yair Shamir, the son of the infamous terrorist leader Yitzchak Shamir, was one of the investors in Stanford’s “bank” in Antigua.

Will Ralph S. Janvey, the Zionist Jew from Hempstead, New York, who is handling the receivership (i.e. recovery) of Stanford assets be leaning on the Israeli Mossad “venture capital” funds to return the tens of millions of dollars they received through the Stanford operation they were part of? Don’t count on it, he is part of the Zionist control team to protect the guilty.

Ralph S. Janvey is the highly-paid court-appointed (and S.E.C.) receiver in the $8 billion Allen Stanford scam.  The Janvey family is involved at the highest-levels in fund-raising organizations for the state of Israel, such as the UJA and B’nai Jesherun of New York City.  The controlled media ignores the Janvey family’s Zionist connections to the state of Israel, which is deeply involved in the Stanford scam. 

Sources and Recommended Reading:

“Allen Stanford’s Private-Equity Connections”, Deal Journal, Wall Street Journal (blogs), 18 February 2009

Ankori, Merav, “Stanford Group puts $10m in Gaon’s cleantech fund”, Globes (Israel), 19 August 2007

Austin, Scott, “Allen Stanford’s Venture Capital Investments Revealed”, Wall Street Journal (blogs) 16 July 2009

“B’nai B’rith, British Weapon Against America”, by Paul Goldstein, The Campaigner, December 1978

Bloodied and shackled: Controversial cricket tycoon Allen Stanford beaten up by jail inmates as he awaits trial, Daily Mail (UK), 8 November 2010 

Bollyn, Christopher, “The Architecture of Terror: Mapping the Israeli Network Behind 9-11”, 25 July 2008

Bollyn, “Who is Bernard Madoff”, 14 December 2008

Bollyn, “The Lehman Scam and Fuld’s Mossad Connection”, 18 March 2010

Bollyn, “The Criminal Nature of the Zionist Controlled Press”, 8 December 2009

Bollyn, “Judge Hellerstein’s Unethical Connection to Key Defendant in 9-11 Lawsuit”, May 10, 2010


Bollyn, “The Murderous Mossad and 9/11”, 23 March 2010

Bollyn, “The Israeli Role in the Plundering of Iceland”, May 22, 2010

Madsen, Wayne, “Stanford laundered and siphoned money from wealthy Latin Americans to fund anti-leftist rebellions”, Online Journal, 8 April 2009

Norris, Floyd, “The cost of following Madoff trail”, International Herald Tribune, 25 February 2011

“’Savagely beaten’ Stanford asks to be freed”, by Jonathan Stempel, Reuters, 18 May 2010

Schudel, Matt, “George Wackenhut Dies; Security Pioneer”, Washington Post, 7 January 2005

Sixel, L.M., “Judge orders Stanford to get drug treatment”, Houston Chronicle, 7 January 2011

Talalay, Sarah, “Miami Heat’s Micky Arison: ticket sales down; sponsor sales better than anticipated”,, November 11, 2009

Bollyn, “Michael Chertoff’s Childhood in Israel”, 26 October 2007

Note: Due to the transfer of information from the original website to this updated format, some article post dates may differ from the date they were originally published. However, most articles contain the actual publish date at the top of the article.

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